Recommendations for working with children with special educational needs

Relevance of work with children with special educational needs

In the current conditions of transformation and modernization of our society, the problem of providing timely psychologically and pedagogically sound assistance to children lagging behind the age norms of development is particularly acute. The task of supporting children with special educational needs is extremely urgent, since most of them have difficulties in adaptation and socialization. The use of innovative approaches in working with this category has a positive impact on their learning and upbringing.

Nature has generously provided every child with the opportunity to grow and develop. Children with special educational needs develop throughout their lives regardless of the severity of the defect. The uniqueness and development of such students is that it is hampered by both external and internal factors: due to the functional immaturity of the nervous system, the processes of inhibition and excitation are poorly balanced. Such children tend to be excitable, irritable, aggressive, often in conflict with children, or, conversely, chained, inhibited, frightened, as a result of which they are ridiculed by others.

Each child is unique, individual and special. Children with special educational needs therefore require a special form of learning activity. This is due to the fact that children with cognitive disabilities are characterized by cerebral palsy, which manifests itself in increased exhaustion, which prevents the intensification of the learning process. The inherent memory deficits require the use of special techniques that promote better capturing and directed reproduction of the acquired knowledge. Considerable time is required to develop thinking and speech. A child with unstable attention, underdeveloped memory, will not be able to perform many of the traditional tasks, in which case a special form of material presentation, namely individualization, is required. From such a relationship with the environment, characterized as a state of chronic maladaptation, the child can not leave without pedagogical assistance, according to John Hattie’s research, 50% of the knowledge of students depends on them, 30% on teaching. The teacher, knowing and taking into account the individual characteristics of the children, how the helmsman should manage the learning process so that pupils learn, know, apply, should provide everyone with optimal conditions for the formation of cognitive activity in the learning process based on differentiated learning. In the learning phase, the individualisation of learning consists of a demonstration of the mode of action, a detailed explanation, after which pupils perform the task partially or entirely independently. The teacher needs to anticipate the difficulties that may be encountered by the student in advance and recommend ways of overcoming them.

Selecting individualized tasks is difficult. If a weak student is given only lighter tasks, this will exacerbate their developmental disabilities. Such students should be included in the work that they are able to do first, then gradually make the task more difficult. When choosing assignments to apply and consolidate knowledge, you should consider the gaps and propose an assignment on the material you have learned before. According to the level of development of children with disabilities, students can be divided into three groups (high level of development A, medium level of development B, low level of development C), which correspond to different types of activities. Read more nere

All children with an ASD can easily cope with the task of drawing pictures of a single subject (rooster, bear, dog). In this case, neither the number of parts nor the direction of the cut do not cause difficulties. However, with the complication of the plot unusual direction of the cut (diagonal), the increase in the number of parts lead to the appearance of gross errors and actions by trial and error, that is, children can not make and think out in advance plan of action. In all these cases, children have to provide different types of assistance: from organizing their activities to demonstrate how to perform.

The world of a “special” child is interesting and frightening.

The world of a “special” child is ugly and beautiful.

Clumsy, a little scary, good-natured and open.

The world of the “special” child. Sometimes he scares us.

Why is he aggressive? Why is he silent?

Why is he so scared? And he doesn’t talk at all?

The world of the “special” child… He’s closed to strangers’ eyes.

The world of the “special” child allows only his own.

Differentiation in the modern sense is to take into account the individual characteristics of children in a form where children are grouped on the basis of some features for individual learning. In the traditional education system, the approach is a combination of individual, group and frontal work. This approach is necessary at all stages of learning.

Differentiated treatment of students during lessons is done at the expense of students:

  • Dosage the individual learning load, both in terms of intensity and complexity of the material;
  • special types of assistance, namely:
  • Demonstration material;
  • vocal regulation;
  • introduction of elements of programmed learning using ICT, etc.;
  • two parallel processes: students’ own work, individual approach;
  • a method of free choice of different level tasks is used when repeating the material.

An innovation in working with students is self-study using an interactive whiteboard. Non-standard lessons, lessons are conducted in the form of a game, with elements of novelty, techniques of innovative technology, which increases interest in the lessons, activates thinking activity and is based on the saved analyzers.

Obviously, for a teacher of a mass general education school working with children with special educational needs, it is necessary to form some special knowledge and skills, personal qualities, without which the process of teaching this category of children will be ineffective. In educating schoolchildren with special educational needs, this knowledge is, first and foremost, knowledge about the psychological and pedagogical characteristics of this category of children.